Indications associated with oils
In immunocompromised reactivation leads to severe disease encephalitis, chorioretinitis. Diagnosis: histopathology or serology IgM. Life cycle Cryptosporidium giardia cysts in stool C. Source of infection may be food and drinking water recreational helminták nyelvi változatai pets and direct contact with farm animals Highly resistant to disinfection e.
Oocysts are shed unsporulated and sporulate in the environment; sexual giardia cysts in stool are incapable of autoreinfection and person to person spread is highly unlikely. Source of infection is food frequently fruit for Cyclospora or drinking water.
Resistance to disinfection is exceptional. Existence of animal reservoirs is uncertain. Cyclospora shows summer seasonality. In case of Isospora some sporozoites or merozoites may form extraintestinal hypnozoites.
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Cause diarrhoea and maladsorption as Cryptosporidium, but out of extraintestinal manifestations only acalculous cholecystitis has been reported Diagnosis is morphological in stool samples after concentration oocysts show autofluorescence two sporocysts with giardia cysts in stool sporozoites in each Treatment of choice is co-trimoxazole Kinyoun stain safranin stain Sarcocystis spp.
PCR are not routinely used Therapy is not established; co-trimoxazole, furazolidone, albendazole are potentially active drugs Giardia duodenalis G. Trophozoites and cysts. Eight genetically distinct genotypes A-H. Humans are infected mainly by A and B. High frequency in developing countries. Faecal-oral, food-borne or water-borne spread.
A proportion of infections is of zoonotic origin. Morphology Kinetoplast Nuclei Axostyl Life cycle Cysts are ingested, the infectious dose is low cysts.
Cysts four nuclei, 16N excyst into excyzoites 16Nexcyzoites divide into four trophozoites one nucleus, 4N. Excyzoites have 8 flagella giardia cysts in stool adhere through an unknown mechanism α1-giardin? The four resulting trophozoites actively move with their flagella and adhere with an adhesive ventral disk. Trophozoites divide and may cause disease. In the ileum, trophozoites encyst into cysts, which contain the remains of hatékony kereszteződés and ventral disks.
Pathogenesis Trophozoites reside in giardia cysts in stool small intestine and cause apoptosis of intestinal cells, disruption of the intercellular junctions, anion secretion, shortening of microvilli and decrease in brush border enzymes disaccharidases. As epithelial cells are shed, motility and reattachment are crucial for pathogenesis. No tissue invasion. Mucus layer inhibits attachment. Mast giardia cysts in stool are recruited.
Enterocyte-derived NO is inhibitory, Giardia counteracts by producing arginase. IgA is partially protective.
Indication Abdominal cramps Constrictive intermittent abdominal discomfort resulting from the spasm of an internal organ.
Intestinal microbiota influences the efficacy of adaptive immune response. Diagnosis morphological cysts in faeces or trophozoites in duodenal fluid antigen detection in faecal samples. Therapy metronidazole tinidazole, ornidazole furazolidone quinacrin, albendazole, paromomycin, nitazoxanide Other body cavity Excavata oral cavity Trichomonas tenax gastrointestinal tract Chilomastix mesnili Dientamoeba fragilis Pentatrichomonas T.
Transmission with Enterobius eggs. Pathogenic role uncertain. Differential diagnostic challenge, must be differentiated from Entamoeba histolytica Metronidazole susceptible. Lobosea 6 7 Entamoeba Entamoeba histolytica, E. Disease, diagnosis and treatment Zoonotic, pigs act as asymptomatic reservoirs Transmission without pig giardia cysts in stool is also possible Source of infection is water, food or direct contact Hyaluronidase plays a role in ulcer formation Disease spectrum include asymptomatic infection acute mucoid or bloody a helminták azok, amelyek a paraziták dysenteria, rarely with perforation chronic diarrhoea rarely lung infection Diagnosis: microscopic detection cysts are rare in acute disease Therapy: tetracycline, metronidazole Stramenopiles Blastocystis spp.
Morphology and life cycle Four forms vacuolar granular cyst amoeboid Ecology and pathogenesis Blastocystis hominis; at least further six genetically distinct groups. Transmission may be human to human and zoonotic. Obligate anaerobic, thought to contain hydrogenosome. Pathogenetic role debated, but increasingly probable.
Cysteine proteases may play a role in pathogenesis through IgA degradation, Intercellular junction damage, NF-κB mediated cytokine production, induction of enterocyte apoptosis.
Diagnosis is based on microscopic detection.
Echinococcosis- hooklet (hydatid sand) in hydatid fluid
Brachiola algerae Enterocytozoon bieneusi Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. Trachipleistophora anthropophthera Trachipleistophora hominis Vittaforma corneae syn.
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Nosema corneum keratoconjunctivitis, bőr és izomfertőzés hasmenés, acalculosus cholecystitis keratoconjunctivitis, légúti és húgyúti fertőzés, disszeminált fertőzés hasmenés.
Rezervoárja a sertés és a patkány Izomtrichinellosist okoz Diagnózis: szövettan vagy szerológia T. Légúti fertőzések 3, 4, 7 és 21 szerotípus - akut légúti betegség pneumonia - akut, lázas pharyngitis pneumonia - pharyngoconjunctivalis láz giardia cysts in stool pertussis-szindróma 2. Szemfertőzés - conjunctivitis - keratoconjunctivitis epidemica 8, 19 és 37 szerotípus 3.
Gastrointestinális fertőzés - gastroenteritis 40, 41; 2 év alatti gyermekek - appendicitis 1, 2, 5, 6 - sporadikus esetek 4.